農村マーケティングとは何ですか?

農村部のマーケティングについて知る必要があるすべて。 約3分の2の人々、特に発展途上国の人々は農村部に住んでおり、彼らの生計を農業や関連活動に依存しています。

都市部では、農場からの産出物、すなわち食物、繊維、その他の原材料が処理され、消費者が利用できるようになります。

農村マーケティングとは、開発された製品、手頃な価格、適切な配置、正しい認識をまとめたものです。 マーケティングルールでは、適切な製品、適切な価格、適切な場所、適切なタイミングで、適切な媒体を介して適切な顧客に到達する必要があります。

この同じルールは、農村部のマーケティングにも当てはまります。農業に関する全国委員会によると、

「農村部のマーケティングは、販売可能な農産物を生産する決定から始まり、技術的および経済的考慮に基づいて、機能的および制度的の両方の市場構造またはシステムのすべての側面を含み、収穫前後の操作を含むプロセスです、組み立て、グレーディング、保管、輸送、流通。」

について学ぶ:

1.農村マーケティングの紹介2.農村マーケティングの定義3.農村マーケティングの意味と範囲4.特徴5.農村環境

6.農村市場の探索の必要性7.農村市場の成長に寄与する要因8.制約9.農村市場におけるマーケティングコミュニケーション10.インドの農村マーケティングの新しい側面

11.農村市場の組織と働き12.農村の消費者とその行動13.重要性14.インドの農村市場の機会。

農村マーケティングとは:定義、意味、機能、農村環境、新次元、重要性、その他の詳細


内容:

  1. 農村マーケティングの紹介
  2. 農村マーケティングの定義
  3. 農村マーケティングの意味と範囲
  4. 農村マーケティングの特徴
  5. 農村環境
  6. 農村市場を探索する必要性
  7. 農村市場の成長に寄与する要因
  8. 農村マーケティングの制約
  9. 農村市場におけるマーケティングコミュニケーション
  10. インドの農村マーケティングの新しい次元
  11. 農村市場の組織と働き
  12. 農村の消費者とその行動
  13. 農村マーケティングの重要性
  14. インドの農村市場の機会

農村マーケティングとは-はじめに

消費者製品のインド市場は、都市部と農村部の2つの部分で構成されています。 農村市場向けに個別の戦略を開発する必要があるかどうかは、マーケティング学者と実務家の両方にとって大きな調査の問題でした。

概して、インドの市場シナリオは、マーケティング担当者が農村市場向けに個別のマーケティング戦略を明確に出したことはほとんどないことを示していますが、マーケティング担当者は農村市場向けに個別のマーケティングミックスを密かに開発しました。 ブランドの農村マーケティングの場合、マーケターは製品の価格を低く抑え、製品の品質を平均レベルに保ち、製品に追加される余分なフリルのコストを削減する傾向がありました。

現在の論文の本質は、都市市場と比較した農村市場のユニークな特徴の文脈において、別個のマーケティング戦略の必要性に関する議論を開くことにあります。 以下では、農村マーケティングのマーケティング戦略のフレームまたは概要を示します。

農村市場の広大さは、マーケティング担当者に課題と機会の両方をもたらします。 生活水準を向上させたいという欲求は、都市部と同様に農村部でも鋭く感じられます。 農村部の収入は増加しており、貧困率は低下しています。

この広大な市場の可能性を引き出すためのマーケティング戦略は、農村地域の特別な特性、態度、および農村人口の社会心理学的特性を考慮に入れなければなりません。

実際、マーケティングチャネル、販売店、通信施設を改善すること自体が、農村地域の変革につながる可能性があります。

マーケティング戦略の設計と開発は、基本的に消費者、この文脈では地方の消費者の徹底的な理解から流れなければなりません。 したがって、まず第一に、農村の消費者を理解する必要があり、次に農村と都市の消費者の違いを理解する必要があります。

ほとんどの場合、農村の消費者は読み書きができず、低所得の消費者であり、価格に敏感であり、彼のグループ内での社会的相互作用が多く、心理的に感情的で、オピニオンリーダーによって導かれ、願望レベルが低く、模倣特性を持っています。 この事実マトリックスは、地方の消費者に対処するためのより大きな課題を導きます。

農村部のマーケティング担当者は調査する必要があります。

(a)消費者の需要と購買力による市場の評価に役立つ、市場ポテンシャルによる市場セグメンテーション。

(b)消費者の行動、消費者の支出、購入のソース、各購入の量、および購入の時間と条件における地方の消費者の優先順位と選好。

(c)地方の消費者に勝ち、メディアを効果的に使用する方法。

(d)変化の触媒剤は誰であり、製品に対してどのような役割を果たすことができますか?

地方の消費者のこの背景に対して、マーケティング戦略を発展させなければなりません。 さらに、農村市場、アクセス不能、散在する村、専門外の小売業者に関連する制約があります。


農村マーケティングとは何か– 専門家による定義:トムセン、GNマーシー、TPゴパラスワミー、その他数名

地方のマーケティングを定義したさまざまな専門家がいます。

専門家の定義の一部を以下に示します:

Thomsenは、Rural marketingを次のように定義しました。」Rural marketingの研究は、農場から最終消費者まで、農場で生産された食品、原材料、および繊維などの派生物の移動に関わるすべての業務とそれらを実施する機関で構成されています、およびそのような操作が生産者、仲介者、消費者に与える影響。」

GNマーシーによると、「農村マーケティングとは、農民による農産物の調達と、農民から消費者への農産物の移動に関わるすべての活動、代理店、政策の研究です」。

TP Gopalaswamyによれば、「農村マーケティングは、農村地域と同様に、都市から農村地域への商品の流れ(製造品)およびその逆(農業製品)を指示するビジネス活動の排出を含む双方向プロセスです。 」。

農業に関する全国委員会によると、「農村マーケティングは、販売可能な農産物を生産する決定から始まり、技術的および経済的考慮に基づいて機能的および制度的の両方の市場構造またはシステムのすべての側面を含み、収穫前および収穫後の操作、組み立て、選別、保管、輸送、流通」。

したがって、単純な言葉での農村マーケティングは、農村地域向けのマーケティング機能の計画と実装であると結論付けます。

農村部のマーケティングに関与する企業の例は次のとおりです。

(a)コカ・コーラとペプシの2つの主要なコーラブランドは、市場シェアをめぐる通常の戦いとは別に、農村市場への参入を懸命に試みてきました。 彼らは、価格設定、流通戦略など、アイスボックス、冷蔵庫、クレジット施設などを提供するなど、多くのマーケティング戦略を考え出しました。

農村市場での勝利は、両ブランドにとって最も厳しい仕事でした。 彼らは主に都市市場で人気がありますが、ブランドイメージは地方市場で忠実な顧客を獲得しません。 コーラとペプシは、小売業者と流通ネットワークを大幅に増やし、革新的なマーケティング戦略を採用することで、農村市場に深く浸透するために多大な努力をしてきました。

(b)ダブールは急速に規模を拡大し、18か月以内に30, 000の村に奉仕するという当初の目標を上回りました。 総粗利益率が改善されたにもかかわらず、農村市場の売上成長率は都市市場よりも42%高くなっています。


農村マーケティングとは- 意味と範囲

国内および世界市場での厳しい競争により、企業は現在、都市部から農村部に移動しています。 企業は、自社製品の知識を開発およびアップグレードし、顧客の間で自社製品の必要性のセグメントを作成することにより、農村地域での地位を確立しています。 農村地域はほとんど利用されていませんでしたが、グローバル化の進展により、マーケティング担当者は農村市場とのつながりを余儀なくされています。

農村マーケティングとは、開発された製品、手頃な価格、適切な配置、正しい認識をまとめたものです。 マーケティングルールでは、適切な製品、適切な価格、適切な場所、適切なタイミングで、適切な媒体を介して適切な顧客に到達する必要があります。 これと同じルールは、地方のマーケティングにも当てはまります。

過去数十年にわたり、インドの農村市場は、農村人口の購買力の成長により顕著になりました。 農村部では、都市部で製造された大量の製品を消費しています。 したがって、農村市場は都市市場よりも重要になっています。 現在、マーケティング担当者は未開拓の農村市場の拡大を模索しています。

インドの人口の大半は農村部に住んでいます。 そのため、インドの田舎でのマーケティングには大きな範囲があります。

組織は、次の理由で農村部のマーケティングに従います。

a。 農村人口– 7億2, 000万人を超える人々で構成され、組織の巨大な市場を形成しています。

b。 農村経済–国のGDPに大きく貢献しています。 インドの農村部には、ブランド製品を知っており、それらを購入する意欲がある多くの世帯がいます。

c。 農村経済と都市経済の関係–農村地域と都市地域の間の経済的つながりを指します。


農村マーケティングとは-トップ9の特徴 :生活水準の低さ、伝統的な展望、インフラ施設、市場の成長、購買能力、その他

農村市場に焦点を合わせ、農村市場の潜在市場を開拓するための効果的な戦略を開発するには、企業が農村市場の特徴を知る必要があります。

機能# 1 大規模で多様な散乱市場:

インドの農村市場は大きく、多くの地域に点在しています。 32平方キロメートルの地域に広がる6, 38, 365の村に住む約75の農村消費者で構成されています。 少数の地下鉄、国際都市、町に限定された都市市場とは異なり、6.30万ルピーの村に散らばって広がっています。 集落あたりの人口が少ないことを特徴とする、このような広く広く散在する地理的市場を対象とすると、在庫と輸送コストが上昇するため、農村地域における流通システムのルートスケジュール運用の実行可能性に影響します。

特徴# 2.農村の消費者の主な収入は農業から です:

農村の繁栄は農業の繁栄と結びついています。 農村部の人々の収入の大部分は農業から来ています。 作物に障害が発生した場合、農村の大衆の収入は直接影響を受けます。 ただし、他の部門が農村経済で重要な役割を果たし始めたため、最近の過去では、農業への唯一の依存度が徐々に低下しています。

特徴# 3.低い生活水準

農村部の人口は、小規模の農業および関連する職業で雇用されています。 農村部の収入の場合のこの信頼性の低い要因により、農村部の消費者は、将来の収入に自信がないため、購入行動を非常に意識しています。 農村人口の大半は貧困線以下で生活しており、識字率が低く、一人当たりの収入が低く、社会的後進性などがあります。

これに加えて、伝統、宗教的圧力、文化的価値、根強い迷信は、社会的流動性の上昇を妨げる要因です。 将来の緊急事態に備えて貯蓄する繁栄により、農村部の人々は、たとえ収入が十分であっても、生活水準を改善するために費やす費用を削減しています。

機能# 4.従来のOutlook

村はゆっくりと発展し、伝統的な見方をしています。 変化は継続的なプロセスですが、ほとんどの農村部の人々は徐々に変化を受け入れます。 彼らはほとんど変化に抵抗します。 これは、特に村の見方を変え始めた若者の識字率によって徐々に変化しています。

特徴# 5.インフラ施設

不十分なインフラストラクチャは、都市と地方の市場を区別する唯一の最も重要な要因です。 セメント道路、倉庫、通信システム、金融施設などのインフラ施設は、農村部では不十分です。 したがって、不十分なインフラストラクチャー施設のために、農村地域ではプロモーションと物流が非常に難しくなり、農村部のマーケティングの範囲が拡大しています。

機能# 6.市場の成長

農村市場は長年にわたって着実に成長しています。 自転車、農業資材、FMCG製品などの伝統的な製品の需要も長年にわたって増加しています。 成長は定量的であるだけでなく、定性的でもありました。

これは、農村開発プログラムを通じて利用可能になった新しい雇用機会と新しい収入源の結果であり、緑と白の革命と、農村の大衆に対する期待の高まりの革命をもたらしました。 自転車、農業投入物、農産物などの製品の需要も長年にわたって増加しています。 これは、農村部の可能性を高めることにつながります。

特徴# 7.多様な社会経済的背景

地理的地域の分散と不均一な土地の肥沃さのために、農村部の人々は社会経済的背景が別個であり、最終的には農村部の市場に影響を及ぼします。 村人はさまざまな宗教、文化、社会集団に属します。 社会文化的背景は、さまざまな分野でイノベーションや新製品を受け入れる消費者の意欲に影響します。

消費者環境の地理的、職業、人口統計的および行動による行動の変動は、ライフスタイルに影響を及ぼし、さまざまな分野でまったく異なるニーズのセットを生み出します。 これにより、農村市場を効果的に収益性を高めるためにセグメント化する必要が生じます。

特徴# 8.農村地域の識字能力

識字率は都市部に比べて農村部で低く、昇進を目的としたコミュニケーションの問題につながります。 識字率が低いと、印刷媒体は非効率になり、農村部では到達範囲が乏しいため、ある程度は無関係になります。

映画、ラジオ、テレビなどの電子メディアへの依存度は高くなっていますが、農村部の識字レベルは農村部で改善されています。 農村部の人々は、高等教育のために都市部に行き始めています。 政府でさえ、農村教育のためのさまざまなスキームを導入しています。 意識が高まり、農民は周囲の世界について十分な情報を得ています。 彼らはまた、彼らの周りの新しい技術について自分自身を教育し、より良いライフスタイルを目指しています。

機能# 9.購買能力

農村部の人々の購買力は、農村部の経済に関連するいくつかの直接的および間接的な要因に依存しています。 農業の余剰と農村部-都市部の交易条件は、農村部の消費者の購買力の主な源泉です。 大部分、インドの農業は降雨に依存しています。

したがって、消費財に対する農村部の需要は、降雨の影響を間接的に受けます。 この結果、地方の消費者の購買力が不十分になります。 しかし今、政府は灌漑、洪水制御、インフラ整備、貧困対策、補助金などに莫大なお金を費やしているため、農村部の人々の1日の購買力は増加しています。

したがって、マーケティング担当者は、農村部の市場の発展に関心があります。 メディアが農村部に届いたため、マーケティング担当者が農村部で製品を販売しやすくなりました。 マーケティング担当者は、農村市場の可能性を認識しており、したがってインド農村部で事業を拡大しています。


農村マーケティングとは- 農村環境

約3分の2の人々、特に発展途上国の人々は農村部に住んでおり、彼らの生計を農業や関連活動に依存しています。 都市部では、農場からの産出物、すなわち食物、繊維、その他の原材料が処理され、消費者が利用できるようになります。

農村環境は、農地、森林、川、山などの自然と密接に関連していますが、都市部では環境が人工的です。 農村部では、社会的接触は個人的であり、比較的長続きします。 都市部では、関係は非人格的で、カジュアルで、ほとんどが短命です。

農村地域とは、人口の少ない場所であり、人口の多い都市部とは異なる田舎を指します。 農村部の人々は、村、農場、孤立した家に住んでいます。 農村部のライフスタイルは、学校、銀行、病院、図書館、下水道、街路照明、公共交通機関、通信施設などの限られた利用可能サービスのため、都市部とは異なります。

住宅、健康、教育、給水、道路、通信、輸送などの基本的な施設は、ほとんどの農村部で貧弱です。 農村部の人々の半数は、不健康で汚れた環境に住んでいます。 農業の近代化と小規模産業の開始のための貧困、失業、財源の不足は、農村部の人々が直面する他の問題です。 農村環境は都市環境とは異なります。


農村マーケティングとは何か- 農村市場を探索する必要性 :農村市場の成長、主要な都市市場での激しい競争、その他いくつか

優れた製造施設とマーケティングの専門知識を持つ多くの企業は、農村地域で消費財やサービスを販売し、都市市場でも農産物を販売する機会があるため、農村市場に焦点を当てています。

1.成長する農村市場:

農業投入とは別に、農村地域では消費財の市場が成長しています。 NCAERによると、地方の消費者はインドの「消費クラス」の50%以上を占めており、消費財とサービスのターゲットグループを形成しています。

2.主要都市市場における厳しい競争:

都市市場での激しい競争により、コストは増加しましたが、高い市場シェアと利益はありませんでした。 多くの企業が、農村部の市場で製品を確立することをリードしてきました。

例– HUL、Colgate、Marico、Nirma、LG Electronics。

3.農業をビジネスとして扱うように農民の態度を変えるには:

伝統的に、農民は農業を生活様式として扱い、家族の要件を満たすのに十分な量を生産していました。 多くの進歩的な農民は、現代の農業慣行に従って作物の収穫量を増やしました。 小規模農家でも生産を増やすことが奨励されます。 農業が十分に発展すると、市場性の高い余剰の結果として農民の収入が増加します。 これにより、工業製品および消費財への需要が高まります。

4.農村部のマーケティングは雇用機会を創出します。

農業の多様化、村レベルの産業の発展、近代的な商品とサービスのマーケティングは、雇用機会を提供します。

(a)保険会社がビジネスを求めてますます地方に行くにつれて、地方部門に機会があります。 インドの田舎を理解している人は需要があります。

(b)高い離職率と人件費の増加により、多くのBPO企業は安価で忠実な人材プールを求めて後背地に移動しています。 ソフトウェア会社でさえ、小さな町にセンターを設立しています。 農村部では、給与は都市や不動産よりも最大で50%低くなり、コストは約5倍低くなり、結果としてコスト競争力が高まります。

(c)政府は、自動車産業の熟練労働者を生産するために、官民パートナーシップに基づいて農村部に専門機関のチェーンを設立することを計画している。 農村開発省もこの提案を支持し、財政的およびその他の支援を拡大することを申し出ました。 研究所は、既存の産業訓練機関に似ている場合があります。

5.農村観光:

地方の人々が観光客に提供するさまざまなアクティビティ、サービス、アメニティが含まれています。 対象となる広い分野は、文化観光や農場観光、自然の休日、農村部でのツアーです。 村のライフスタイルと伝統的なおもてなしは、観光客にとっての魅力です。 多くの都市部の人々は、ルーツ(村)に戻り、都市部の生活の圧力から離れる機会を提供するため、農村部の観光を選ぶでしょう。 農村観光は、雇用機会を生み出し、村人の収入を増やします。 さらに、田舎の休日は、若い都市人口が田舎の生活を体験できるようにします。

(a)クンダール(マハラシュトラ州サングリ地区)のクシュティ(レスリング)カーニバルは、2ラク人近くの人々を引き付けます。

(b)マハラシュトラ州の受賞者はワインツーリズムを開始しました。 ワイン観光を持つというアイデアは、訪問者がワイナリーに滞在し、ブドウ園を見て、ワイン製造プロセスの感覚をつかむことです。 これにより、飲み物を楽しむこともできます。

(c)Pongalの収穫祭で行われるJallikattu(雄牛の飼い慣らし)は、タミルナードゥ州の観光パッケージの一部となっています。

(d)ラージャスターン州は、砦、宮殿、砂岩、絵画、陶器、村の工芸品、コミュニティエンターテイメントなどの目的地として紹介されています。

(e)180 kmに位置する村、プルシュワディ。 ムンバイからは、村の観光を促進している組織である「グラスルート」の努力により、観光の中心地となっています。 2006年に開始され、60世帯以上がゲストを歓迎し、村の生活や丘の寺院の訪問、トレッキング、農場での仕事、川での水浴びなどを体験します。

6.国の人口の70%以上が農村部に住んでいます:

消費者が非常に多いため、農村市場には大きな可能性があり、企業は農村市場を明日の市場と見込んでいます。

中流階級のセグメントはインドの都市部であり、すでによく整備されています。 しかし、銀行、保険、基本的な健康管理、教育、住宅に関しては、農村市場のサービスは不十分です。 さらに、四輪車、冷蔵庫、カラーテレビなどの普及率は農村部では低く、創造的なマーケティング担当者にとって大きなチャンスがあります。

7.ブランドロイヤリティ:

低所得のため、地方の消費者の大半は価格に敏感です。 しかし、彼らは製品に満足したらブランドをひいきにし続けます。

例– Parle Biscuitsは、引き続き地元のブランドよりも人気があります。

8.外国の競争:

インド市場に参入する外国企業は、通常、都市の消費者に焦点を当てています。 したがって、農村市場では競争が少なくなります。

9.地域テレビネットワークの開発:

マーケティング担当者は、製品やサービスに関するメッセージを農村人口に伝えることができました。

(a)若い村の世代は、前の世代よりもさまざまなメディアにかなり露出しており、彼らは都市の同等物をエミュレートすることを好みます。 子どもたちは、農村部での購入決定に影響を与える重要な役割を果たします。

(b)ビスケットのカテゴリーでは、ブリタニアは子供を念頭に置いてTigerブランドを立ち上げました。 ビスケットは、「タイガーカオ、クーチバンクディカオ」というキャッチフレーズで子供たちをターゲットにしました。

10.ライフサイクルの利点:

多くの製品は、都市部では成熟/衰退の段階に達し、農村部ではまだ成長段階にあります。


農村マーケティングとは何か– 成長に寄与する要因 好ましい政府政策、農業開発、インド経済の発展、その他

要因#1.有利な政府の政策:

マハトマ・ガンジーは、「インドは村に住んでおり、先進国になるには、村を発展させなければならない」と言っています。 政府は、農村地域の経済発展のためにイニシアチブを取り、5カ年計画を通じて、農業、畜産、灌漑、電気、乳製品、カディおよび村の産業とインフラ施設の開発に多額の投資を行ってきました。 第10次5カ年計画では、農業と農村地域の開発、輸送、通信、電気、健康、教育、雇用創出などの社会サービスに高い優先順位が与えられました。

マンモハン・シン博士は最近、インドの田舎に対する彼のビジョンについて話しました。 「インドの田舎に対する私のビジョンは、近代的な農業、産業、サービス経済が共存することです。人々は設備の整った村に住み、簡単に通勤することができます。経済。 このビジョンを実現するために現代の科学技術ができることはたくさんあります。 農村部の収入を増やす必要があります。 農村インフラを改善する必要があります。 農村の健康と教育のニーズを満たす必要があります。 雇用機会は農村部で創出されなければなりません。」

農村開発は包括的なプログラムであり、農業、村落産業、サービス部門の成長、住宅、公衆衛生、識字、交通、教育、コミュニケーションの開発が含まれます。

政府は、以下からなる農村開発への全体的かつ統合的なアプローチを開始しました。

(i)「Bharat Nirman」の傘下の農村インフラ開発プログラム。

(ii)雇用保証プログラムに焦点を当てた全国食糧計画。 この作業は、水の保全、土地開発、洪水制御、および農村の接続性に関連しています。

(iii)農村部での追加の賃金雇用と食料安全保障を提供することを目的としたサンプールナ・グラミン・ロズガル・ヨハナ(1993)。

(iv)Pradhanmantri Gram Sadak Yojana – 2000年に開始され、新しい道路を建設し、約1ラク村を接続し、既存の道路をアップグレードすることを目的としています。

(v)Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram(2013)は、以下を提供します。-全国農村保健ミッションの下での小児疾患の無料治療。

(vi)Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarojgar Yojana – 1999年に開始されたこのプログラムは、必要に応じたクレジットと補助金を組み合わせることで、村人の自営業を発展させることを目指しています。 Intensive Rural Development Programme、Million Wells Scheme、農村部の女性と子供の開発などの初期のプログラムは、このスキームの下で統合されました。

(vii)全国農村雇用保証制度(2006)-

(a)農村住宅プロジェクトまたは農村住民へのシェルターの提供。

(b)農家などへの信用の流れを強化する。

(c)農業のリスクに対する保証。

(d)農産物の市場を創出する。

(e)ITおよびインターネット接続を介した農業市場情報の提供。

(f)小麦、米、豆類の生産を増やすための国家食糧安全保障ミッション。

(g)農業への公共投資を増やすためのラストリヤ・クリシ・ヴィカス・ヨジャナ。

(viii)農民への普及訓練に向けた全国農業普及システム。

例–ビハール州は、ブロックレベルでe-Krishi Bhavansを開始した国で最初の州になりました。 これらの完全にコンピューター化されたe-Krishi Bhavansは、技術アドバイス、土壌試験、農民へのトレーニングなどのサービスパッケージを提供します。 これらのセンターには、農産物の価格、市場への到着、気象条件などに関する最新情報を提供するインターネット設備があります。

(ix)国家園芸ミッション(NHM)は、2005年から2006年にかけて農業省によって実施されています。 ミッションの目的は、園芸作物(果物、野菜、花)の生産と生産性を高め、収穫後の損失を減らし、栄養の安全性を高め、輸出を増やし、農家の収入を増やし、失業者の雇用機会を生み出すことです。

花oriの輸出は2010年までに1, 000千ルピーに達しました。国内市場は約3, 000千ルピーと推定され、年率40%で成長しています。 政府は、ベンガルール、コルカタ、ノイダ、ムンバイに花のオークションセンターを設置し、ゴア、カリカット、コインバトールの貨物取り扱い施設を改善しています。

中央統計機関の最新のレポートでは、ビハール、ウッタランチャル、ウッタルプラデーシュ、チャッティースガル、ジャールカンドなどの州は、同時期の全インドの成長と比較して、2004-05から2008-09の間に高い成長を示したことが示されています。 Example-Biharは、2012年までの第11計画期間で12.10%の成長を記録しましたが、国の平均成長率は7.90%です。

要因# 2.農業開発

農業はわが国のGDPの約16%に貢献していますが、農村人口の65%以上が生計を農業に依存しています。 農業セクターはインドの経済において主要な役割を果たしています。都市部の人々に食物を提供し、綿、サトウキビ、労働力などの原材料を産業セクターに供給しているからです。

農業の繁栄は、農村地域の消費財に対する相当な需要を生み出します。 マディヤプラデシュ州のような国は、第11次5か年計画でインド全体の3.20%の成長率と比較して、9.04%の農業成長率を示しています。 マディヤプラデシュ州は、2003年の7千ヘクタールと比較して、灌漑下で16千ヘクタールを有しています。

以下のイニシアチブは、農業の成長と発展につながっています。

(a)農業教育と研究–農業大学と研究ステーションの設立により、農業における技術的人材と技術開発の可用性が確保されました。

(b)60年代後半から70年代前半の緑の革命は、現代の栽培慣行を通じて作物の収穫量を増やすことに焦点を当てていました。 60年代半ばの食料不足国から、我が国は1971年に食料生産で自給自足になり、現在、農産物を他の国に輸出しています。 地方の人々の可処分所得が増加しています。

(c)作物の多様化–作物のパターンを食用作物から綿、唐辛子、果物、野菜、花などの換金作物に変更し、栽培者は収入を増やすことができました。

(d)農業の多様化-モンスーンへの依存を考慮して、多くの農家は収入を補うために家禽、魚の養殖、および乳製品の生産を始めました。

(e)牛乳生産の自給自足を達成するために政府によって白革命が開始された。 この政策は、地方の協同組合を通じて牛乳を生産し、加工乳製品を都市部に移動することを想定しています。 乳生産量は、1950年の17百万トンから2012年の123百万トンに増加し、農村部の収入が増加しました。 インドの酪農産業は現在、世界最大であり、世界の乳生産の20%を占めています。

現在、生産されている牛乳の約20パーセントしか処理されていません。 乳製品の需要は、生産された牛乳の大部分を処理することで簡単に満たすことができます。 高品質の乳製品の輸出の機会があり、インドの農村部はドルのインドに変換することができます。

例–グジャラート州は乳製品開発でリードしており、パンジャブ州、アーンドラプラデーシュ州、マハラシュトラ州、タミルナードゥ州などが続いています。

要因 3.インド経済の発展

In an underdeveloped country, a large part of national income is contributed by primary sector (Agriculture) and as the country develops, share of primary sector declines and that of secondary (Manufacturing) and tertiary sector (Services) increase.

There has been expansion of industrial and service sectors leading to more employment opportunities. Therefore, Indian economy has undergone a change from underdeveloped economy to a developing economy.

Factor # 4. Rising Aspirations of Rural People and Attraction for High Standard of Living :

The average household income has increased from Rs.52, 000 (2005) to Rs.76, 000 (2010). Further it has been observed that monthly salary earners have high income compared to income from the farm. The rise in income coupled with increased awareness and the need for possess modern goods have influenced the rural marketing environment in the country.

The mobility towards higher income group has been higher in rural area compared to urban. The rural consumer is quickly moving from basic necessities to branded products.

Examples-

(a) The rural youth forms a distinct segment of the population. They are modern, knowledgeable and receptive to changes than their elders. They value material comforts and are quick in adopting fashionable lifestyle. Marketers of two-wheelers, TVs, ready-made garments, soft drinks, cosmetic, etc., are targeting the youth market.

(b) Premium brands like Denim Talc and Pantene have entered the market though current volumes are low.

(c) The consumption of instant noodle, an urban product, is growing fast in rural areas.

Factor # 5. Media Explosion :

Expansion of TV network and more channels have contributed to the growth of rural markets. Through several TV channels and internet, rural consumer is also exposed to the global village.

There are about 6 lakh inhabited villages and about 80 per cent of the villages have .been connected through Village Public Telephones. Ending 2011, there were 929 million mobile subscribers. Out of this 327 million subscribers are from rural (35 per cent) areas. Further there are about 60 lakh public telephones in villages.

The Government plans to reach rural teledensity of 40 per cent by 2014. Regarding internet users, at the end of 2013, the number of total internet subscribers in rural India stood at 68 million (All India 205 million). Total internet subscribers is expected to reach 243 million by 2014. (More than in the US the second largest internet base in the world after China).

(a) Many states have Implemented E-governance projects. Karnataka's Bhoomi Project aims at computerisation of land records and the documents are made available through bhoomi kiosks.

(b) E. Seva, for the payment of utility bills, purchase of travel tickets, issue of birth/ death certificates, etc., initiated by Andhra Pradesh has been received well by consumers in urban and semi-urban areas.

(c) Very attractive schemes are offered by mobile operators for semi-urban and rural consumers.

(d) A key factor that has inhibited the development of rural India has been lack of access to critical information and services. Project I Shakti, an IT-based rural information service has been developed to provide information and services to meet the rural needs. I Shakti kiosk is operated by Shakti entrepreneur and provide information on health, hygiene, legal, veterinary, agriculture, education and employment.

Factor # 6. Private Initiatives :

Private agencies have contributed to growth and development of rural areas through village level programmes.

Examples-

(a) Companies like HUL and Colgate have highlighted the importance of health and hygiene among villagers through school teachers, village meetings and film shows.

(b) Parry Corner, internet access centre initiated by Murugappa group in Tamil Nadu, provides information on farming techniques, bank loans, insurance, availability of agricultural inputs, Government schemes, etc., to rural population.

(c) Seeds, fertiliser and pesticide companies have created awareness among farmers about modern methods of cultivation by conducting extension activities such as farm-to-farm visits, group meetings, demonstrations and film shows.

(d) Launched in 2000 by ITC, e-Choupal has become the largest initiative among all the internet-based interventions in rural India. The farmers can sell their produce, buy a variety of products, receive all the information needed to improve their yields and get a better price for the produce through e-Choupal.

(e) Around 40 per cent of Bharti Airtel's Wireless subscribed base resides in rural areas and for Vodafone, the rural use base is around 50 per cent (2012).

(f) Rural naukari.com provides employment opportunities by creating database of rural human resources.

(g) About 53 per cent of HDFC Bank's branches are in rural and semiurban areas.

Factor # 7. Growth in Income :

Number of households (in million) coming under very rich and well-off categories are high in rural areas.

The average income level has improved due to modern farming practices, industrialisation of rural area, growth of service sector, migration of rural people into cities and remittance of their money, remittance of money by family members settled abroad. Rural income (farm and non-farm) contributes to over 50 per cent of the total income of the country. The farm wages have been rising and increased from Rs.110 per day in 2006-2007 to Rs.154 per day in 2011-2012.

Factor # 8. Growing Rural Market :

Rural markets are growing fast and in many states they contribute to substantial sale of FMCG products.

Rural contribution to FMCG sales is high in states that have significant rural population as shown below:


What is Rural Marketing – Marketing Communication

Marketing communication, and promotion too, poses problems in rural markets. There are many constraints emanating from the profile of the audience and the availability of media.

The literacy rate among the rural consumers being low, the printed word has limited use in the rural context. In addition to the low level of literacy, the tradition bound nature of the rural people, their cultural barriers and taboos and their overall economic backwardness add to the difficulty of the communication task. The situation is further compounded by the linguistic diversity.

Rural communication has to necessarily be in the local language and idiom. The constraints of media further compound the difficulty. It has been estimated that all organized media put together can reach only 30 per cent of the rural population of India. TV is an ideal medium for communicating with the rural masses. But its reach in the rural areas is limited even today.

As regards the print media, the various publications reach only 18 per cent of the rural population. Even in areas reached, the circulation is limited. And the low literacy level of the rural population acts as a further inhibitor in the use of the print media in rural communication. Cinema is relatively more accessible. It has been estimated that 33 per cent of the total cinema earnings in the country come from rural India.

Rural communication has also become quite expensive. For rural communication to be effective, repeat exposures is a must; and if the gap between exposures is long, the message loses its edge during this period. These factors make rural communication more expensive. Rural communication has to go through all the time consuming stages of creating awareness, altering attitudes and changing behaviour. In addition, it also has to work against deep rooted behaviour patterns.

In short, the crux of marketing communication in the rural context is one of finding a media mix that will deliver the required message in a cost- effective manner to a target an audience that is predominantly illiterate.

Overcoming the Constraints and Managing the Communication Task :

A company that seeks a long-term presence in the rural market has to squarely encounter these constraints and find a way of communicating effectively with the rural target audience.

Selecting the Media Mix:

Evidently, in the rural context the firm has to choose a combination of formal and non-formal media.

The possibilities are indicated below:

Media Mix in the Rural Context :

1. Formal / Organized Media-

私。 TV

ii。 シネマ

iii。 Press

iv。 Other print media

v. Direct mail

vi。 Radio

vii。 POPs

viii。 Outdoors

2. Non-Formal/ Rural Specific Media –

私。 Audio-visual vans or publicity vans

ii。 Dance-dramas, puppet shows, rural specific art forms like Harikatha and Villupatu performed at village melas and temple festivals

iii。 Demonstrations

iv。 Study classes

v. Mike announcements, processions.

vi。 Caparisoned elephants, decorated bullock carts carrying ad panels.

vii。 Music records

viii。 House-to-house campaigns by special promotion squads.

ix。 Information centers on company's products

1. The Formal Organized Media:

Among the formal/ organized media, TV, Radio, Cinema, POPs and Outdoors have a good scope in the rural context.

私。 TV:

With the increase in coverage and the increase in TV ownership in rural areas, TV has the potential to become the primary medium for rural communication. Studies have revealed that as much as 77 per cent of the villages in India now receive TV transmission and 27 per cent of all rural people actually watch TV.

ii。 Radio:

The radio is a well-established medium in rural areas. A big expansion in broadcasting facilities has taken place in the country over the years. The availability of radio sets has also expanded. While radio as a medium cannot match TV in potency and effectiveness, in the existing context, radio does have a role in rural communication.

iii。 Cinema:

The cinema is a useful medium in the rural context. Most Indian villages have one or more cinema houses. And 29 per cent of all rural people do see cinema as a matter of regular lifestyle and habit. Short feature films with disguised advertisement messages, direct advertisement films and documentaries that combine knowledge and advertisements, can be employed for rural communication.

iv。 Outdoors:

The outdoor also lend itself well to rural communication. In fact, presently, many companies are using the outdoor medium imaginatively in their rural communication mix, through hoardings, wall paintings, illuminations and other displays in the rural areas.

v. POPs:

The POPs, point of purchase (or point of sale) promotion tools are also quite useful in the rural markets. The POPs meant for the rural market should be specially designed to suit the rural requirements. More than written words, symbols, pictures and colours must be used in POPs meant for the rural markets. Colour is of particular significance in the rural context. As a general rule, the rural people love bright colours. The effective communicator utilizes such cues.

2. The Non-Formal/Rural Specific Media :

A variety of non-formal media have been developed over the years by rural marketing firms to suit the specific requirements of rural communication. Some of them are interpersonal media and the others mass media.

The more popular ones among them are analyzed below:

Audio-Visual Publicity Vans. The AV unit or the publicity van is very useful for rural, communication. The van is a comprehensive mobile promotion station at the exclusive command of the concerned firm. The firm can exhibit its films and other audio-visual presentations such as slide shows, sound and sight presentations, puppet shows, etc. from this instant promotion station.

A portable shamiana or platform can be carried in the van and used as the stage. Even mini public meetings can be organized using the shamiana. Portable exhibition kits can be carried in the van and exhibitions put up instantly. The van can also be used for sales campaigns in addition to promotion campaigns.

It can also be used for product demonstrations. In short, the van has all the advantages of carrying and delivering a tailor-made communication programme for the chosen target audience.

Naturally, the AV vans are quite popular with rural marketing firms. Practically all the firms in the agri inputs business have their own AV vans all over their respective marketing territories. Firms marketing consumer softs come second in the use of AV vans. Firms marketing consumer durables come third.

In the third category, the efforts of Philips India deserves a special mention. Philips India has very successfully used the AV vans for popularizing their radios in the rural markets.

While the AV vans are very effective tools in rural promotion, the cost is high as the target population is scattered. The cost of reaching an individual customer or prospect through the van works out high.

In the early stages of market development, in particular, the sales generated may not have any relationship to the cost involved in the extensive use of AV vans. But in view of its effectiveness, big companies with I' resources make a conscious decision to use the vans as a long-term market development tool

Syndicated AV vans. In recent years, rural publicity vans have become a purchasable service. Firms which cannot afford to operate publicity vans of their own can utilize the syndicated AV van service offered by independent agencies.

Music records, puppet shows, Harikatha, etc. Music cassettes and records is another effective medium for rural communication. It is an appealing medium and a comparatively inexpensive medium. One complete language group can be reached on a low budget through specially developed records or cassettes. They can be played in cinema houses or in other places where rural people assemble.

People entertainment programmes like puppet shows, dance dramas, Villupattu and Harikathas specially developed for product promotion purpose are now being used in rural markets. These traditional art forms readily render themselves for communication in rural society.

Sales messages can be beautifully blended with folklore to capture the imagination of rural audiences. Village fairs, festivals and 'melas' are ideal venues for projecting these programmes. In certain cases, public meetings also are useful for promotion in the rural context.

Interpersonal media. Interpersonal media have a special merit in the rural context as they facilitate two way communication/interaction. They also bring market feedback to the firm. In many cases, rural people prefer face-to-face communication to mass communication.

Their confidence in the product and the firm and their goodwill towards the firm become stronger through interpersonal approach. Interpersonal media have their V unique ad vantages; they are segment-specific, market-specific and score high when it comes to involvement and participation of the audience. Rural communication can work best when it generates involvement of the target audience.

In the effort to reach out and go beyond the mass media, a firm can establish contact with the audience through fairs and festivals, folk performances and other special events. These points of contact also provide multiple media opportunities. For example, at any fair various media like audio, audio-visual and interpersonal communication could be used.

Group meetings, demonstrations, house-to-house campaigns. Group meetings of customers and prospects are an important component of interpersonal media. The salesmen or the promotion staff of the firm can effectively carry the product messages to the target audience at these meetings. On the spot demonstrations of the products can also be carried out at these meetings.

House-to-house campaigns constitute a handy tool in the rural market. In these campaigns, small squads of staff or persons specially hired for the x specific promotion make house-to-house visits in the rural areas. Several independent teams may be at work at the same time in different parts of the same village. The teams usually carry with them product promotion literature/handouts/product samples, etc.

These campaigns are different from door-to-door selling campaigns. The promotion squads do not engage in the selling job; they only propagate the product. As companies may normally find it difficult to spare their own staff for such elaborate and time consuming work, they may hire the required people on a daily wage basis, train them briefly and use them under the supervision the of company staff.

Assembled and Delivered :

Media selection is not the only aspect that calls for great care in rural communication. The communication strategy as a whole requires unique the rural context. Experience shows that all companies, which have distinct strategies.

The following are a few examples of successful rural promotions which recognized the distinctiveness of the rural market.

a。 Market Segmentation in Rural Markets :

In addition to the major problem areas explained above, other aspects like market segmentation and product management also require a unique handling in rural markets. Let us first discuss market segmentation.

It would be unwise for any firm to assume that the rural market is a homogeneous market and can be served with the same product-price- promotion combination. Business firms have to carry out a thorough and data based market segmentation, select the relevant segments as their target market and develop distinctive positioning strategies and marketing mix for the chosen segments. Fortunately, the rural market lends itself well to segmentation. In fact, it can be segmented in a number of ways using different bases.

私。 Geographic Segmentation :

In the first place, the rural market can be segmented geographically and different bases can be used for this segmentation. Climate can be the first of these bases; regions endowed with favorable climate are usually more prosperous compared with climatically handicapped regions. Level of irrigation can be another base. Irrigated areas and dry land areas pose different marketing environments.

And within irrigated areas, single crop; double crop and triple crop areas indicate varying levels of prosperity. Level of agricultural advancement in overall terms can also be a base. In this approach, parameters like adoption level of high yielding varieties, adoption level of fertilizer use and standard of agricultural practices will have to be reckoned with.

Yet another form of geographic segmentation can be tried, using 'nearness to a feeder town' as the base. Studies have revealed that rural consumers who are located in the immediate hinterland of a feeder town visit the feeder town at least once a month to sell their produce and/ or to buy their requirements.

Studies have also revealed that in exposure and buying habits, those who are located near a feeder town are different from those living in the remote rural areas. It may be therefore, useful to segment the rural market into consumers who are located closer to a feeder town and consumers who are located away from the feeder towns. Evidently, different

Approaches to marketing can be adopted to serve the two segments. Similarly, nearness to an industrial project center can also be used as a relevant consideration for segmentation. There is a cross flow of population between project centers and rural hinterlands. As such, the project centers act as conduits for the flow of products and ideas. This fact can be used for segmentation.

ii。 Demographic Segmentation:

Demographically there are many possibilities of segmenting the rural market. Population spread or population concentration can be one base. About 36 per cent of the rural population lives in seven per cent of the villages in the country and the remaining 64 per cent live in 93 per cent of the villages. The rural market can be segmented on the basis of different size classes with respect to population.

Segmentation using age as the base also has a good scope in rural marketing. About 26 per cent of the rural population falls within the 5-15 years age group. This means that there is a population of more than 15 crore in this age group in the rural market. Similarly, there is a population of more than 20 crore in the age group of 16-30 years in the rural market.

It can serve as a base for segmentation. Surveys have revealed that the younger generation dominates the purchases in the rural market. This is partly due to their greater literacy and exposure and partly due to their changing values and styles. These facts are relevant to the marketing person.

Literacy can be another base for demographic segmentation of the rural market. Though rural India, in general, is characterized by low literacy, there are wide variations in literacy within rural India. For example, while the rural literacy rate in Kerala is 60 per cent that of Bihar is only 12 per cent.

Income too can be a base. In fact, income will be a particularly useful base for segmenting the rural market since income distribution in the market is quite uneven. It will be unwise to assume that all people in a particular rural area will be able to consume a particular product. It will be equally unwise to paint the whole area with the same brush and call it a market with 'low purchasing power.

b。 Product Management in Rural Markets :

In product management, the most crucial decision in the rural context is whether the product that is sold in the urban market can be supplied to the rural market as it is or whether it must be adapted. The decision depends on the situation and the nature of the product.

The firm must find out what kind of product is required by the rural consumer and then make and supply the required product. In some cases, the same product may be equally acceptable in both rural and urban areas. In yet other cases, the basic product can be the same but the colour, size and package may have to be especially designed for the rural target group. For example, in the paint.

The Size and Importance of the Rural Market:

The rural market in India is made up of two broad compartments:

(a) The market for consumption goods, including both fast-moving consumer goods and durables; そして

(b) The market for agricultural inputs and other investment goods.

Not surprisingly, a survey carried out recently, indicates that the entire demand potential for manufactured goods that exists in this country has been largely untapped. The truth, however, is that not even a fraction of the rural market has been serviced by the industries in the organized sector.


What is Rural Marketing – New Dimensions in India

New problems are emerging due to the invasion of corporations to take over the rural economy. One of them is opening up the rural sector to real estate development corporations, insurance companies, banking and transport, tele-communication, and power to give a surge to investment in rural industry.

The Tatas have already established plants for preservation of perishable vegetables. They have installed micro-processing plants for eradicating bacteria from fresh vegetables to ensure longer shelf life. These are examples of big business houses taking advantage of their position of vantage in acquisition of advanced technology.

At present, agriculture is contributing 40 per cent of GDP, and showing a growth of 11 per cent. The capital industry is experiencing a much higher growth-23 per cent in 1994-95 (April end). The share of the rural sector is 35 per cent in the total investment of the private sector.

Factories for production of fertilizers and pesticides, farm implements and machinery, and motorised trollies are being located in the rural regions. Development would have been faster than, at present, if power and telecommunication facilities had been developed.

A rough estimate of income in rural areas puts it at 1.6 lakh crore per annum, with 11 per cent average growth. Till recently, it was strongly believed that the rural consumption pattern is traditional. The assumption led to the conclusion that the rural economy is static and devoid of dynamism.

The awareness created by electric media began to change the traditional pattern of consumption. Watches, soaps, toothpastes, brushes, sewing machines fridges, TVs, transistors, record players. Hi-fi musical gadgets, allopathic medicines, fancy clothes, care, motorcycles, jeeps and gypsies are common durable consumer items in villages for the upper classes.

The members of the growing opulent class in the rural sector are educated. They are managing farms on commercial lines and have acquired a state for an urban life-style. The houses, interior decoration, designs, architecture furnishing and fixtures resemble those of urban villages.

The farmhouses have the guest rooms and servant quarters and poultries and dairies for the kitchen. The rich farmers are very rich. The economic activities have been vastly diversified from farming to real estate development. Access to big money has come in handy for lavish spending by rich farmers in casinos and elite clubs in cities.

On the contrary, landless workers, forming the major chunk of rural society, are finding it difficult to make both ends meet. Illiteracy, ignorance, deprivation and unemployment are major problems. They can hope rise only if the state comes forward with bold and ambitious plans to fight poverty.

Training and transfer of technology are the only means of rehabilitating landless workers, through providing jobs in industries in rural areas. In the near future, poverty can be turned into prosperity for the masses. NOIDA in Western UP and Unnao in Eastern UP can be cited as examples.

The leather footwear industry established in Unnao is a successful exporter. It employs local workers and pays a steady wage of over Rs. 100/- a day. It takes one week for a worker to learn operating modern machines. NOIDA in Ghaziabad district has developed into a vast industrial zone for electronics. Multinationals are running manufacturing units at NOIDA.

The marketing centres are growing side by side industrial units. Hightech information systems, efficient transportation and steady power supply are going to reduce the physical isolation of villages. There is mounting pressure on industries to disperse from cities.

Information-based marketing will take over the traditional marketing system. Purchases being traditionally confined to spices, salt, tobacco and textiles is no longer relevant. It is unfortunate that rural wealth goes into land and gold. Banks are gaining acceptance among the rural rich to handle and manage their investments.

A family budget allocates 50 per cent of the income to food, clothing and health. Durables consumer goods claim 30 per cent of the annual incomes, and 10 per cent is saved in the case of the upper classes. The new middle class, which has created by modern institutions, spends 30 per cent of the income on this kitchen and 30 per cent on education and clothing.

A substantial 15 per cent goes to health care. A negligible 5 per cent is saved in the form of compulsory contribution to provident fund. It is the white collar working class.


What is Rural Marketing – Organisation and Working

However, a few product of rural industry have a fair share of the market through co-operative dairies, mandis (rural markets) under the control of co-operative marketing societies, and co-operative warehousing societies, to cite a few. By looking at mandis in different states, some salient features of the rural market can be deduced from their organisation and working.

In the first instance, co-operative marketing societies are formed with membership drawn from among the farming class. The membership fees meet the cost of organisation and administration. The office-bearers are elected representatives. Policies are formulated by the general body, and the executive powers are vested in the management committees.

The day-to-day working of mandis is entrusted to the management committee. It exercises its power to supervise control and manage the marketing activities. The Food Corporation of India (FCI) is the biggest procuring agency in the public sector. It deputes its staff to procure cereal food items, jute and cotton for its buffer- stocks. The network of mandis is widespread in the country. Farmers get full value for their produce.

However, vegetables, fruits, flowers and other perishable items have to be transported to private mandis. The Azadpur Vegetable and Fruit Mandi in Delhi is the biggest mandi is Asia. It is managed by private traders. New arrivals at the time of harvest are purchased by private traders at low prices.

Most of the produce is stored in warehouses. After the harvest, the prices usually rule high at the expense of the fanners as well as the consumers. In the long run, this act's as a disincentive to undertaking extensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits. Co-operative societies have yet to show their competitive strength in perishable items.

The problem is amenable to solution through provision of warehousing facilities by the cooperative sector. Setting up warehouses being expensive, individual fanners may not find it easy to finance it. Besides, farmers are not conversant with the organisation and management of warehouses.

Rural economic development is thwarted by the illiteracy and lack of technical know-how. The adult literacy programme and some community projects have the twin object of eradicating illiteracy and developing technical know-how.


What is Rural Marketing – Rural Consumers and their Behaviour

There are following points to understand and review regularly related to the rural consumers and their behaviours:

私。 Who are the rural consumers?

ii。 Their habits,

iii。 Education level,

iv。 Standard of living,

v. Quality consciousness,

vi。 Earnings and its sources,

vii。 Collection of this information ie, rural market research.

These features are self-explanatory. But their collection mode ie market research is very significant job for an organisation to know the basic requirements of the rural consumers and their behaviours so as to promote the sales of their products in the rural markets.

The best method would be to send their own sales and marketing representatives regularly to the rural areas and have direct contacts with the people to know their needs and expectations besides about their other information as listed above.

Accessing the Rural Markets :

Access to the rural markets may be directly or through the private sales and marketing channels. These channels may be wholesalers or retailers. The wholesalers or retailers should have their strong sales and marketing supports and facilities so as to cover the rural markets effectively.

Customisation for Rural Market :

Present practice by the companies dealing in the consumer goods (FMCG) is to take the rural market very seriously. They have realized that there is a great need to understand the rural market, the people, their needs and usage of products. Indian as well as MNCs are innovating and customizing their products for successful operation in the rural market. These companies have realized that urban products need to be changed to the rural consumers' tastes and satisfaction.

Companies who are very successful in the rural markets are; Ghadi detergent, Priyagold biscuits, Cavinkare. Global giants like GE, Honeywell, Intel and Dupoint are all spending money and time in understanding the specific needs of the rural consumers and customizing their products accordingly.

Opportunities, Issues and Challenges of the Rural Market :

Rural accounts for 55% of India's total income. The number of middle class households in rural nearly equals urban and is expected to grow six times from 32 million in 2005 to 208 million by 2020. Rural accounts for 65% of the country spending. So there is a huge market waiting in the rural. For example by 2012, rural share of mobile subscribers will be 60% with 440 million subscribers from the current share of 31%.

At the same time, there are issues and challenges in the rural. Some of the issues are; road infrastructure, communication, electricity etc.


What is Rural Marketing – Importance: Future Prospective, Increase in per Capita Income, Media Effect, Growing Literacy, Social Awareness and a Few Others

In India rural marketing was neglected in early days. The obstacles were there seen as, inaccessibility, low purchasing power of rural customers, lack of distribution facilities in rural areas and very less presence of media. However, the complete transformation in rural scenario is witnessed, because of many important factors like media penetration, growing percentage of Literacy, increase in social awareness, improved farm management, road connectivity, expansion in telecom network, improved banking and credit facility, increasing population.

Importance of rural marketing can be stressed with the help of following points:

1. Future Prospective :

As far as India is concerned every company in India is now aware of the truth that sale can be significantly improved with targeting rural sector because of rise in the overall standard of living and want for purchasing more and more products with different varieties is also increasing day by day.

With this study, every organization is setting some special teams of marketing managers responsible for studying, analyzing, implementing marketing strategies in rural areas and thus boosts the sales figures rapidly.

Nokia is the best example of how marketing in rural area can affect sales and create a Brand value even more than the urban or metros.

Nokia is one of the most sought brand in rural area even if it's share in total mobile companies have reduced with the aggressive strategy implemented by Samsung mobiles. In villages people buy products on the basis of trust and faith and not on technical specialties .

2. Increase in Per Capita Income:

Country spotted increase in per capita income even in rural sector which resulted in the rising demand for the various product including consumer durables and even luxuries products.

Rural sector is so attracting the organizations that they are spending millions of rupees for marketing alone in the rural areas.

3. Boosting of Overall Progress of Company:

Rural marketing with proper marketing techniques can create magical results and thus every corporate organization is keen in making such marketing and promotion mixes useful for the product sale and increase in profits.

Many loss making companies have changed their focus from urban areas to rural sector by changing some product lines and attracting rural people which resulted in their loss making status to profit seeking and even profit making corporations.

Thus rural marketing cannot be overlooked because future lies in this sector and every company must know this truth.

4. Media Effect:

Media penetration in rural area is one of the most important factors in creating awareness about products availability, change & updates in technology & current market trend. People have started to use advanced equipments for farming, home appliances, electronic gadgets and brandied clothes. Refrigerator, iron, microwaves, mobile phones, two wheelers, four wheelers are becoming mandatory things in rural area.

Advertisement on Television gets and radio leaves a big impact on the people. Most of the companies take an advantage of the customer behavior and advertise their product accordingly. Following the stardom is one of the trends which are followed by a large percentage of rural youth. This is the reason why companies can offer bollywood stars or sports persons (successful) to advertise their product.

TV entertainment is being used more effectively than often seen on Television set. Most of the events shown on the television are result of an advertisement.

5. Growing Literacy:

As a result of many government policies and promotions for creating an awareness of education in rural areas the literacy rate is constantly increasing. Literacy especially in youth of rural areas, is helping them to earn more money in available budget. People have started to use advanced equipments for farming and gaining more profit. Reducing the manpower in farming sector is creating new opportunities.

Young people get jobs in urban areas and others have started various small scale business. Hence the average income per family is increasing rapidly so the standard of living is also going high about quality of products and seemed to be rising about branded products. Durability and price are being considered while purchasing.

6. Social Awareness:

Change in lifestyle is mostly because of copying the lifestyle people see and people do, it's observed that people play most important role in advertisements of the product. When a customer purchases a product he tells about it to everybody, he meets or at least few of them. Whatever experience of customer has had with the product is automatically spread. This factor is one of the important factors in marketing.

While living in a society people are more careful about their behavior, and the way they carry themselves. Nobody wants to look less impressive than others. They spend a large percentage of their earning on maintaining their status in the society. For maintaining the status they purchase products which at least match the market trend.

7. Improvement in Farming :

Population of world is increasing rapidly. India is the second largest in the world population. To fulfill the need of food of this much large population a lot of research has been done on farming equipments and techniques which increases productivity. Farmers have adapted themselves with the new techniques and equipments.

Eventually with the help of latest technologies and new ideas farmers have started to make more profit. Hence the market for the advanced farming equipments and market for luxurious products is also improving the overall status in rural market.

8. Improvement in Infrastructure and Expansion of Telecom Network :

A government scheme like, “Pantapradhan gram sadak yojana” has helped people in rural areas to get connected with urban areas. Which at the end helps in creating more business opportunities and more healthy distribution chain in rural areas. Network providers have reached to the rural areas and have captured a big market. Because of easy telecommunication and use of advanced phones, people in rural area are always connected to the world. They get the same updates about market trends and newly launched products as urban people.

9. Improved Banking & Credit Facility:

Organization in banking sectors has realized the opportunities of profitable business in rural areas. Most of the rural areas are being captured by nationalized as well as small banks. Rural people get the loans easily from the banks as banking organizations have lower the criteria's and most of farmers put mortgages to get the loan. Getting financial assistance in difficult times or to start new business ends with profit to both parties, banks & customers.


What is Rural Marketing – Constraints : Scattered Markets, Physical Distribution, Channel Management, Sales Force Management, Rural Promotion and a Few Others

Rural India lives in villages with varying customs, languages, culture, education and prosperity and most marketers are not ready to face the same.

There are many reasons why companies are reluctant to explore the rural markets:

(a) Resources – The companies require resources in terms of men, money and materials to enter the rural markets.

(b) Long-term Plan – Even if they have the resources, it may not be possible to increase the sales, market share and profits within a short period and therefore companies have to treat such expenses as investment for business development in rural areas.

(c) Management Support – While the top management may be committed to development of rural markets, many of the junior level staff may not have the knowledge, skills, attitude to explore the rural markets and they continue to focus on urban marketing.

Adi Godrej, Chairman of Godrej has rightly observed — “The rural consumer is discerning and the rural market is vibrant. At the current rate of growth, it will soon outstrip the urban market. The rural market is no longer sleeping but we are.”

Industry Survey (2010) of over 100 companies shows that half of the senior executives are keen to tap the rural market. However, they are concerned about lack of infrastructure facilities like road connectivity, teledensity, availability of skilled manpower and seasonal demand.

While rural markets offer tremendous opportunities for the marketers, it is not possible to take a sizeable share of the market in the short run due to the following reasons:

1. Scattered Markets :

The rural market consists of about 6 lakh villages and 833 million consumers. The urban population of 377 million is concentrated in about 7, 000 towns and cities. Reaching such a widely scattered consumers and retailers over a large geographical area is a challenging job indeed.

2. Physical Distribution :

(a) Transportation – It involves moving goods from one place to another. The infrastructure is very poor in our country. The roads are in bad condition and 20 per cent of the villages are not connected by road. In interior villages, animal carts are used to carry goods. This type of transport is slow and inadequate. Other problems are non-availability of rail transport, poor bus/lorry services in villages.

(b) Warehousing – Warehousing includes receiving the goods, despatching small consignments and documentation. No 'pucca' godown facilities are available in rural areas.

(c) Communication – We have 1, 40, 000 post offices in rural and semi-urban areas. Post and telegraph system is not well developed in interior rural areas. Even today 20 per cent of the villages are without telephone facility.

3. Channel Management :

(a) Multi-tier System is requited to service rural customers.

Example – Company depot/C&F Agent in the city, distributor in town, stockist at Mandi/Taluka level, wholesaler in feeder market and retailer in the village result in increase in cost of distribution.

(b) No Scope for Manufacturer Owned Outlets – Low volumes do not justify own showrooms.

(c) Limited Availability Retailers – It is uneconomical to run retail shops due to low sales turnover in rural areas. In many markets, retailers are not just available. Practically, there are no shops in the villages having less than 500 population and there are about 2 lakh villages under this category.

(d) Fewer Brands – Studies conducted have shown that the rural retailer keeps less number of brands of products due to limited sales in villages.

(e) Inadequate Banking and Credit Facility – Banking facilities are inadequate in rural areas. There are no banks in villages having less than 2, 000 population. Marketers find it difficult to collect funds through bank. Further, the consumers and merchants are not able to avail credit facilities.

4. Sales Force Management:

The salesperson plays an important role in promoting the products through direct contacts with the customers.

Requirements of a rural salesperson are given below:

(i) Fluency in local languages.

(ii) Capacity to work for extended hours.

(iii) Ability to undertake long journeys.

(iv) Has to put up with inadequate boarding/lodging facilities.

(v) Knowledge of values, beliefs and perceptions that influence the behaviour of consumers.

(vi) Preferably from local area.

(vii) Knowledge of different types of rural customers.

(viii) Selling skills.

(ix) Knowledge of competition.

(x) General knowledge about agriculture.

Considering communication facilities, location of personnel in small towns and the large number of salesmen required to service rural market, sales force management is a very challenging for marketers.

5. Rural Promotion:

Rural marketing requires special promotion efforts, such as AVP van, demonstrations, and group meetings due to the unique characteristics of the market. The media and the methods have to be formulated accordingly.

Example – In urban markets, print media has become very popular. The same is not very suitable for rural markets due to low literacy level. There are 18 recognised languages and 850 different dialects. Communicating with these rural consumers hence becomes very difficult.

6. Underdeveloped People and Market :

The rural markets are highly scattered and there are barriers in reaching the rural consumers due to the following:

(i) Low literacy

(ii) Low income

(iii) Seasonal demand

(iv) Price sensitivity

(v) Low quality-consciousness

(vi) Traditional practices, and

(vii) Low reach of mass media.


What is Rural Marketing – Opportunities i n India: Low Penetration Rate, Impact of Globalisation, Increase in Literacy Rate, Low Penetration Rate and a Few Others

The rural market has been growing gradually over the past few years. The saving to income percentage in rural areas is 30% higher than urban areas. At present approximately 53% of all FMCG and 59% of Consumer durables are being sold in rural areas. The immense potential of the rural market can be realised, if the marketers understand this market. The huge untapped needs of the rural mass, the growing rural economy and the increasing media penetration and brand awareness make this market extremely attractive to marketers.

So Rural markets are providing a lot of opportunities to the marketers.

Major opportunities available in rural markets are as follows:

1. Increase in disposable Income and Purchasing Power :

Among the important factors contributing to the opportunities in the rural markets for the marketer, the continuous rise in rural income is the most important. More agricultural production and substantial increases in the disposable incomes of rural people and countrywide progress have been catalyzed by many rural development schemes implemented by government.

The agricultural development programs of the government have helped to increase income in the agriculture sector by increasing the productivity and better price for agriculture products, thus enhancing the purchasing power in rural markets. Continuous government efforts for narrowing income inequalities have expanded the market for consumer goods by bringing into its fold newer segments.

Increase in income and purchasing power has provided the marketer greater opportunity to expand their operations in rural markets.

2. Increase in Population and Hence Increase in Demand :

The rural market in India is vast and scattered and offers a lot of opportunities in comparison to the urban sector. It covers the maximum population and regions and thereby, the maximum number of consumers.

742 million Indians constituting 138 million households reside in 6, 38, 365 villages (Census 2001), the size of rural market itself speaks of its potential. The current marketing environment and economic scenario have brought the corporate under contemporary roofs of modern India, which is challenging the current standards of segmenting, targeting and reaching the customers. Increased population lead to the increase in demand for the products of the marketer.

3. Saturation of Urban Market :

The urban market is reaching towards saturation point which brings out the urgent need to focusing on rural markets. Intensified competition in urban market increases costs and reduces market share. The rural markets are therefore increasingly attractive in relation to urban markets. The automobile market brings this out clearly. Rajdoot motorcycles, Bajaj Scooters or Ambassador Cars find ready acceptance in rural markets as compared to urban markets, where there is a proliferation of brands.

Saturation in urban market is a signal for marketers to make strategies for tapping rural markets.

4. Accessibility to Markets due to Improvement in Infrastructure Facilities :

Infrastructure is improving rapidly in rural areas which lead to easy access to these markets. The pro-rural long term policies and programmes (for example, Bharat Nirman, NRHM) in the last five years have brought with them the promise of sustainable infrastructure and social development of rural India, bringing rural markets back to the centre-stage of the corporate world. In 2005, the introduction of the flagship programme, Bharat Nirman which focused on an all-round infrastructure development, has brought about a remarkable transformation in the rural landscape.

The programme aims at building infrastructure and basic amanities in rural areas to reduce the gap between rural and urban areas. It covers rural housing, irrigation, potential, drinking water, rural roads, electrification and rural telephony. The road network had facilitated a systemized product distribution system to villages.

5. Lesser Dependence on Agriculture and Monsoon :

There was a time when market predictions were made on the basis of the state of the monsoon but this trend has changed over the years. There is large non farming sector, which generates almost 45% of the rural wealth. Due to this rural consumer need not be totally dependent on agriculture for their income. Corporate India is also learning to live with the uncertainty of rain.

6. Low Penetration Rate :

Penetration rate in rural India is very low. Low penetration indicates the existence of unsaturated market, which are likely to expand as the income level rises as awareness increases. It provides an excellent opportunity for the industry players in form of vastly untapped markets.

7. Increasing Sale of Branded Products :

Sales of branded goods have already overtaken those of non-branded products in villages. Rural consumers are also becoming aware of the branded products and also have started using branded products which provide a vast opportunity for a rural marketer.

8. Impact of Globalisation :

The impact of globalization will be felt in rural India as much as in urban. But, it will be slow. It will have its impact on target groups like farmers, youth and women. Farmers, today keep in touch with the latest information and maximize both ends. Animal feed producers no longer look at Andhra Pradesh or Karnataka. They keep their cell phones constantly connected to global markets.

Surely, price movements and products' availability in the international market place seem to drive their local business strategies. On youth, its impact is on knowledge and information and while on women it still depends on the socio-economic aspect. The marketers who understand the rural consumer and fine tune their strategy are sure to reap benefits in the coming years.

In fact, the leadership in any product or service is linked to leadership in the rural India except for few lifestyle-based products, which depend on urban India mainly. Due to effect of globalisation, there is a wide scope of rural marketing.

9. Increase in Literacy Rate :

The rural literacy rate has improved in recent past which have increased the awareness among rural consumers. They are also interested in developing the market in rural area. Rural people have started to go to urban areas for higher education. Even government has introduced various schemes for rural education. Awareness has increased and the farmers are well informed about the world around them. They are also educating themselves on the new technology around them and aspiring for a better lifestyle.

10. Increasing the Role of Media :

Mass media has created the increased demand for goods and services in rural areas which provides an ample opportunity to rural marketer for earning profits. Radio and TV have revolutionized the entire marketing scenario. Practically TV is more effective in conveying and injecting an idea. TV has changed the rural folk's outlook, attitude and lifestyles.

It penetrates into rural areas smoothly and makes the work of sales personnel easy. Radio covers 62 percent of urban and 40 percent of the rural population. TV covers 80 percent of the urban and 35 percent of the rural population. Doordarshan is being overshadowed by cable network. The net effect of increasing coverage of audio-video media is greater and it provides greater exposure to modern life-styles and brands.

Media impact on rural customers is high. This is changing their lifestyles, thereby increasing their consumption of non-food items. Interest arousal capability of TV is high. Acceptance of brands is high and attitude has changed due to media exposure. Media has reached to rural area, so it becomes easier for marketer to sell product in rural area.

11. IT Penetration in Rural India :

Today's rural children and youth will grow up in an environment where they have information access to education opportunities, government schemes, mandi prices, exam results, career counseling, job opportunities, weather forecasts, bank loans, worldwide news and information, livelihood options etc., If television could change the language of brand communication in rural India, affordable web connectivity through various types of communication hubs will surely impact the currency of information change.

As the electronic ethos and IT Culture moves into rural India, the possibility of change is becoming visible.

12. Increase in Government Initiatives :

Various schemes of Government like Kisan Credit Card helped the farmers to take loans for fertilizers, seeds etc. This enables them to produce more and increase their income. Government schemes like IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme), JRY (Jawahar Rozgar Yojna) and TRYSEM (Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment) have created new employment opportunities in Rural India.

As a result, very few rural people are now flocking to urban cities. There is also large inflow of investment for rural development programmes from the government. In addition to this, the government's stress on self-sufficiency resulted in various schemes like operation flood (White Revolution), Blue Revolution, Yellow Revolution etc., has resulted in the production of 15 million tons of milks per annum.

13. Rural Marketing is not Expensive :

Though rural consumers are dispersed, reaching them is costly but new research indicate that selling in rural India is not expensive. Expenses on campaign like advertisement in newspaper, television etc. is lower in rural areas as compared to urban areas.


 

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